The Mysterious origin of the Guanches
The Guanches are the mysterious natives of the Canary Islands. They were just about exterminated by the Spaniards when these invaded the archipelago at the turn of the 15th century. Tall, blond and blue-eyed, the Guanches have long intrigued the anthropologists, for blond natives are rarity. According to the reliable Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Guanches "are thought to have been of Cro-Magnon origin... and had a brown complexion, blue or gray eyes, and blondish hair" (See Fig. 1).
Indeed, the Guanches are deemed to be related to the Berbers of neighboring Morroco, who are, likewise, tall, blond and blue-eyed when unmixed with the Arab majority. Other specialists, however, believe that the Guanches are related to the Celts of Western Europe, the early realm of these races. No matter what, the Guanches represent a unique opportunity of studying the early peoples of this region so intimately connected with Atlantis and the Garden of the Hesperides.
Isolated in their islands, the Guanches were prevented, until the advent of the Spanish, from sexually mingling with other races. So, they preserved their pristine Cro-Magnon genetic traits in a more or less pure fashion until that date. But, as we said, the Guanches were massacred by the Spaniards, and their remainder mingled heavily with the invaders, so that they essentially inexist today. But the blond, blue-eyed, tall stock has been preserved in part, and can still be seen in many individuals. As is known, blond traits are dominated by dark ones, and tend to disappear from the population. But they survive unseen, and may return in certain individuals called "recessives", who combine the proper genes.
Furthermore, the Guanches mummified their dead, and this material can be studied by the researchers, particularly concerning traits such as blood type and racial characteristics. This strange mode of disposing of the dead which the Guanches shared with the Polynesians, the Egyptians and the Mayas has been mooted out by several authorities as indicating a close affinity among these distant nations. The Guanches also left some sort of alphabetic inscriptions which have yet to be studied, along with their pottery and peculiar ruins. All in all, the archaeology of this most remarkable people is far from satisfactorily researched.
Many researchers have pointed out the resemblance of
the Guanche natives with the Cro-Magnons and, particularly, with Cro-Magnoid
types of regions such as those of Muges (Portugal) dating from the Mesolithic
(c. 8,000 BC). Similar groups have been noted and studied Portugal, Spain,
France, England, Sweden and Northwest Africa, precisely the realm of the Celto-Germanic
and the Berber races.
Are the Canaries the Remains of Sunken Atlantis?
Due to both their age and their origin, the Canarian
volcanoes can hardly be invoked to account for the conflagration that wiped
Atlantis off the map. Instead, this type of basaltic, submarine volcanism is
nowadays perfectly well understood geologically speaking. Such volcanoes result
from the upwelling magma that forms the Continental Plates, according to the
theory of Plate Tectonics, and are a feature of all oceanic regions of the
world. Hence, the claims made by certain Atlantologists such as P. Termier, I.
Donnelly, C. Berlitz and many others that the Canaries or the Azores, or the
Madeiras are the remains of sunken Atlantis do not hold water at all.
Are the Guanches Atlantean Relicts?
But if they are not Atlanteans left behind when their continent sunk, the only possible explanation for the mysterious origin of the Guanches is that they primordially came from somewhere else. But, whence? Certainly not from neighboring Africa, the realm of the Black Man. No serious anthropologist has ever maintained that the blond Aryans originated in Africa itself. The standing proposals for the origin of the Berbers and, possibly, the Guanches themselves, are that they came from Arabia, after crossing the Sahara desert.
But, to start with, no one is sure that the Arabs or, even less, the Aryans, originated in Arabia or Palestine, and their own ethiological legends affirm that they came from beyond the Indian Ocean. Moreover, the Sahara desert poses a formidable barrier ever since the end of the Pleistocene, and it is highly unlikely that it could be crossed by hordes of migrants, unstocked with the food and water required for the task.
The Guanches were held in perfect isolation from Europe and other Old World civilizations until they were discovered by the Portuguese and Spanish at the end of the 15th century. This separation dates from prehistoric times that far predate the ones of Plato and Herodotus, and even those of Homer and Hesiod. So, if Guanche legends indeed relate to Atlantis and its doom, we can be certain that the golden realm was no idle invention of Plato or other Greeks, but originated in a very ancient tradition, dating from the dawn of mankind. This is precisely what we aim to prove in the present work on the origin of the Guanches.
We start by reviewing the ancient traditions linking the Canaries to the Garden of the Hesperides and the Islands of the Blest, and progress into the modern proposals purporting to show that the Canaries and the other neighboring islands are the remains of sunken Atlantis. Finally, we attempt showing their rather direct relationship between the Canaries, Atlantis and the Garden of Eden, the legendary site of the origin of Mankind.
If our conclusions indeed prove to be right and survive
the wellcome attack of the critics, the whole of human prehistory will have to
undergo a major revision. Hence, the importance of inquiring on the origin of
the Guanches and their possible connection with Atlantis. The mysterious
Guanches provide the key to the riddles that surround the origin of Mankind, and
are the "missing link" connecting the Mediterranean and other
neighboring civilizations to the Far Orient and the Indies, the true site of the
Garden of the Hesperides. This garden, also known as that of Eden, is the place
where Mankind and Civilization indeed developed, according to the holy
traditions of many nations, and not only that of the Bible.
Evening Isles Fantastical
Many other classical authors also mention such fantastic islands of the ocean. This ocean the Greeks, ignorant of the other oceans, very naturally identified with what we nowadays call by the name of Atlantic Ocean, that is, "the Ocean of the Atlanteans". But when we read the ancient traditions closer, we notice that the fabulous islands of the Atlanteans were always placed "at the confines of the earth".
Moreover, the ocean in question is invariably described
as "winy red" and is placed towards dawn and Orient. In other words,
the ocean in question is the Indian Ocean, which the ancients called Erythraean,
that is, "Red One". And Atlantis is the same as the Ultima Thule of
the ancients, this being the name they gave to the "confines of the
earth" which lay towards the Orient, in the Eastern limits of their world,
and where they also placed the Pillars of Atlas, the twin and counterpart of the
western Pillars of Hercules, in Gibraltar.
The Phoenicians and the Secret Route to the Indies.
In the desire to preserve the lucrative monopoly of their maritime trade with the Indies, the Phoenicians and their partners disguised their verbal maps under a veil of confusion intended to avert the possible competitors towards the wrong places and directions. It suffices to read such accounts, preserved in the writings of authors such as Avienus, Hanno, and Pytheas of Marseilles to observe the inextricable confusions that becloud the real distances, names and directions.
The same thing happens with the writers that speak of the Atlantic Islands in mythical terms. The accounts of authorities such as Herodotus, Plato, Diodorus, Theopompos and many others are no different from the accounts of the Odyssey and the Argonautica. They are full of allegories, metaphors, paradoxes and even downright lies that have led the experts to despair from ever making any sense out of them.
Such relates tell of seas riddled with clashing rocks,
seamonsters and thorny sargassoes that dragged down the ships they caught, or in
giant maelstroms and muddy shoals and doldrums that prevented the mariners from
ever escaping death. They also tell of one-eyed giants and microscopic dwarfs,
of strap-footed Titans and goat-footed satyrs, of terrible cannibals and of
sorceress of all kinds. But some of these accounts were far more realistic and
matter-of fact, and plainly alluded to real islands such as the Canaries and the
Madeiras and, far more likely, to the Indonesian islands or even the Americas
Midas and the Satyr Silenus
The satyr, entrapped and rendered drunk by Midas, told him of an Outer Continent (the Americas?) that outlay the ocean and which was inhabited by a people twice the size and twice as long-lived as the ordinary mortals. One part of their continent was permanently enwrapped by a red mist and was drained by two rivers, the River of Pleasure and the River of Grief. Once, these giants crossed the ocean intending to conquer the ancient world. But once they saw the misery of our world, they realized that it was useless to pursue their plan, and retired to their world in disgust.
The story of Theopompos is extremely interesting, for it embodies the essential elements of the myth of Atlantis. To start with, the attempted invasion of the giants closely evokes the similar one undertaken by Plato's Atlanteans. Plato too alludes to the Outer Continent, the Epeira Ges that delimited the Ocean on all sides, and which can only be the Americas. The Atlantean empire was indeed worldwide, and certainly encompassed the Americas, whose name comes not from a hypothetical Amerigo Vespucci, but far more probably relates to that of the Celtic Armorica.1
In the version of Theopompos, the Atlanteans are
confusedly equated with the Long-lived Ethiopians of Homer, Herodotus and
others. The Long-lived Ethiopians, often described as tall, blond, blue-eyed
giants of twice normal size, are a recurrent feature of the ancient Greek
legends. More realistic historians such as Pliny and Solinus correctly place
these blessed giants in the islands of Taprobane, that is, in the Indonesian
islands. But others, perhaps ignoring the true meaning of the antique
traditions, place the Islands of the Blest and their beautiful, saintly giants,
in the Canaries and the Madeiras where we also encounter them in reality.
The Mirror of Illusion (Maya)
The motif of the Mirror of Illusion occurs even in the Americas and, particularly among the Gnostics such as the Cathars and others. The Phoenicians indeed held that the Pillars of Hercules of Gibraltar were a "mirror image" of those located in the Orient, as some of their coins specifically illustrate. Interestingly enough, Maya (the male avatar of the Mayβ) is the Great Architect, the luciferine deity of the Gnostics and the enlightened civilizer of humanity. Maya (masculine of Mayβ) is also the builder of legendary Lanka, the city and capital of the worldwide empire that was the actual archetype of Atlantis. In Fig. 2, we show two Phoenician coins illustrating the true Pillars of Hercules in the Far East, and their illusory reflection in Gibraltar.
As we shall see further below, Maya, the Supreme Smith of the Hindus, had his Guanche counterpart in Guayota, the Supreme God of the Guanches, and in Lug, their Celtic counterpart. Such coincidences can hardly be random. So, the only possible explanation lies in diffusion through direct contact among the civilizations in question, that is, those of the Guanches, the Celts and the Indonesian Aryans, known to the ancients as the Pious Ethiopians of Taprobane.
The Pillars of Hercules of Gibraltar and the Garden of
the Hesperides of the Canaries in the Atlantic Ocean are an illusion or mirage,
a mirror image of the true Islands of the Blest, in Indonesia. The Atlantic
Atlantis, variously placed in the Canaries, the Azores, Tartessos (Spain),
Mauritania (Morocco), or Crete is a sheer illusion created by the clever
ancients in order to distract and to disillusion the inquisitive profanes of
ever finding the Lost Continent and the true site of Paradise. So are the ones
of the Syrtis (Libya), the Bosphorus, the Armorican coasts of Brittany, the
Irish Isles, and so on.
The Ancient Conspiracy
But they could not tell its true location, for this was the matter of the secret of the ancient Mysteries, and this divulgation was considered a grievous crime of profanation, often punished with death, as in the case of Socrates and, possibly of Plato himself. So, the true location of Paradise was only dealt in a sort of coded language based on allegories, riddles and puns that were intelligible only to the initiated in those secrets.
Well, the evidence we gave above is just a small sample of several hundreds of compelling evidences like the ones we present below and elsewhere. Our strongest evidences for Atlantis and its true location in the Far East are both geological and anthropological. They include racial characteristics, blood types, myths, traditions, customs, techniques, artistic motifs and, above all, the linguistic, cultural and religious affinities. The last two are just about the strongest and most unequivocal of all links between different nations derived from a single stock.
In an article parallel to this one we present the philological comparison of the Guanche language to Dravida, the sacred, pristine language of the Dravidian populations of India. As can be seen in that article, the two languages, though isolated from each other by untold millennia, are remarkably similar both in phonetics and in grammar. No serious linguist will idly dismiss the cogent parallels we present there, particularly as the linguistic affiliation of the Guanche tongue is an unsolved riddle so far.
For reasons of space and scope, these two articles are
kept concise and non-technical. But even then, we believe that the evidence
presented is compelling enough to convince all that take the trouble to follow
them in detail. Moreover, as we just said, there are simply no viable
alternative theories that explain the riddle of Guanche origins in a
satisfactory way. In our view which we argue in detail here and elsewhere
this people formerly lived in Indonesia or, more exactly, in the now sunken
portion of it which now forms the South China Sea. When their land sunk away, at
the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age, they were forced out by the cataclysm, and
moved to the Canaries, possibly in the wake of other seafaring nations such as
the proto-Phoenicians and proto-Cretans.
The Twin Ethiopias of Homer and Others
Emigrating from the charred remains of their sunken continent the formerly paradisial Land of the Dead that would later become the Islands of the Blest the Canarians (and other Atlantean nations as well) moved to the opposite side of the world, where they would attempt to rebuild their lost Paradise. Hence, the twin Ethiopias of Homer and others, and the duplicity of Pillars of Hercules, of Mt. Atlases, of Gardens of Hesperia, and so on.
Even the Ocean that encircled the earth with its ring
was likewise parted into two complementary moieties ascribed to the omnipresent
Atlanteans. More exactly, it was parted into two parts, one which we now call
Atlantic Ocean, as did the ancients, and an eastern half that had its name
changed from Atlantic Ocean into Indian (or Erythraean) Ocean. This name, which
means "red" in Greek, is the mystic name of the Atlantean peoples such
as the Phoenicians, the Egyptians, and even the Guanches themselves. Indeed, the
"Reds" are the Chams or Chamites of the Bible, a name not unconnected
with the red races just mentioned and with that of the Guanches as well.2
The Atlantis of the Orient
The Hesperides (or Atlantides) were the seven daughters and lovers of Atlas. Atlas, the Pillar of Heaven, was the personification of Mt. Atlas, just as his seven beloved daughters were the ones of the Seven Atlantic Islands that figure in many traditions, and which are no other than the ones of Indonesia. It is only natural that the giant would want to place his girls right next to the place where he stayed up the heavens, for carnal reasons, if not prompted by fatherly love. Hence, the Garden of the Hesperides of the Far Occident in an illusion not unlike the "Mt. Atlas" of Mauritania or its Canarian replica, the Teyde (or Teide) volcano.
The Mt. Atlas of Mauritania, the one we know under that
name, is not indeed a volcano, and, hence, cannot at all explain the traditions
concerning the conflagrative destruction of Atlantis and the fall of the former
heaven when its Holy Mountain collapsed. If Mt. Atlas indeed collapsed as
volcanoes are wont to do after gigantic explosions and if Atlantis sunk
along with its environing lands, how are we to expect to find its mountain
unscathed, as is the case of Mt. Teyde in the Canaries, and of Mt. Atlas, its
Theopompos' Atlanteans and the Mysterious Hanebut
This darkening of the sun is a sad reality, well known to the inhabitants of the region of Indonesia, volcanically the most active in the whole world. In Hindu myths, the city associated with the cataclysmic explosion and the smoke cover is called Dhumadi. This name means "Covered by Smoke", in Sanskrit. This etym (or etymon or etymology) closely recalls the legend of Sodom and Gomorra, likewise covered by a pillar of smoke "that rose up to the very skies".
Indeed, Dhumadi was the archetype of Atlantis and, as we explain elsewhere, of Sodom and Gomorra and other such cities destroyed by a volcanic conflagration. In Egypt we encounter the same tradition under the name of the mysterious Hanebut. The name means, in Egyptian, "the Dwellers of the Misty Regions".
The Hanebut were a real people, and their region was
frequently visited by the Egyptians, who traded with them across the ocean. As
the Egyptians only sailed the Indian Ocean, it is clear that the region in
question lay beyond that ocean, in the region of Indonesia. It was there that
the mysterious country of the nebulous Cimmerians was located, as well as the
Pillars of Hercules and, more exactly, those of Atlas as well. Plato places
Atlantis just in front of the Pillars of Hercules. So do many other ancient
authors, disguising its true identity under names such as Cimmeria, Hades,
Taprobane, Cassia, Punt and Hanebut.
The Celts and the Elusive Cimmerians
The Nephilim the fallen Titans or Giants of the Bible, whose sin with the Daughters of Men led to the cataclysm of the Flood in all probability derive their name from a radix neph meaning "nebula", "mist", as in the Greek nephele, the German nefel, the Sanskrit nabha, the Dravida nep, etc. Even in Egyptian we encounter the radix in the name of the Hanebut (or Hau-nebhu-t).
Homer (Od. X:508; XI:14) tells how the Cimmerians lived
"enshrouded in mist and perpetual darkness which the sun never
pierces". He places their region in Hades, beyond the Ocean, next to Mt.
Erebus. Erebus is the very entrance to Hell, the terrible chasm left behind when
Mt. Atlas foundered underseas, becoming a giant volcanic caldera.
The Celts are the Cimmerians of Taprobane (Sumatra)
One of the triads of the Celtic Mabinogion tells how:
Here is direct evidence that the Cimmerian Celts (Cymry)
indeed came from Taprobane (Sumatra), here misspelt as Defrobani. The Country of
Summer (Gwlad or Haf) can only be situated at the Equator and can hardly be
identified with the Hyperborean regions of the Far North, where this people also
settled after fleeing their destroyed homeland. Hu Gadarn is the Celtic
equivalent of Noah and of Aeneas, leading his people away from their destroyed
Paradise, into the Promised Land.
Actually, the Hyperboreans were held to live in the
mysterious Thule, the divide of the world that lay beyond the ocean. And the
word Ocean meant, for the ancients, the Indian Ocean, and never the Atlantic,
which they never sailed. Thule is the same as the island of Long-Lived
Ethiopians. And these Ethiopians are indeed the Hyperboreans, both legendary
races being identical in being composed of tall, blond, blue-eyed Ethiopians.
Both lived in the far off region of Taprobane (Indonesia), a place, the above
authorities add, "which lies beyond the Aquilon".
Boreas Is Not Indeed the North Wind That Blows From The
So, the mythical Hyperboreans, the mysterious "peoples that live beyond the Boreal winds" are not those who lived in the Alps, above Europe, but the ones who lived beyond the monsoon winds that blow in the northern coasts of Indonesia and nearby regions. This fact is attested by too many ancient authorities to be dismissed easily, except by solid contrary evidence
The reality of the North European Hyperboreans could
never be established in realistic bases, and their postulation has only led to
paradoxes and difficulties. But when we accept the assertions of Pliny, Solinus
and other authorities such as the ones we have been quoting, everything starts
to make sense. Besides, how could Apollo, the Sun god, make his abode in the
gelid Alps, instead of the equatorial Indonesia, the true Island of the Sun of
Pliny, Boreas, and the Hyperboreans
Apollo and the Hyperboreans
Pliny's Hyperborea also evokes the description of the island of Emain Abalach (Avalon) in Celtic poems. There:
Another a similar Celtic poem adds:
What a wonderful country is this one!
What is to be retained from the above discussion is the
fact that Avalon, Hyperborea, Thule, Taprobane, Eden, Paradise, Emain Abalach,
the Garden of the Golden Apples, the Garden of Idun and so on are all one and
the same thing. Their connection with the "first fruits" is an
allegoric reference to the fact that Atlantis was indeed the very first site of
human civilization, the same as the legendary Paradise or Garden of Eden.
The sinking of this realm is told in the legend of the
Flooding of Ys, another central tradition of Celtic mythology. And their sunken
Paradise became the Land of the Dead, the "Tomb of Glass"
(Glastonbury) or "Island of Glass" (Ynis Wydr) that we encounter so
often in their Celtic legends. This dismal Hades is the same as the Cimmeria of
the Greeks, the Hanebut of the Egyptians, the Sheol of the Jews and the
Nefelheim of the Germanic Nations.
How the Guanches Got to the Canaries
When the White Ethiopians who survived the Atlantean cataclysm emigrated to the distant Occident in their ships under the guidance of admirals like Aeneas, Hercules, Phoroneos, and Hu Gadarn and, perhaps, Noah, Canopus and Jason they settled in colonies along the way, on every coast and every island that looked promising. The legends are certainly founded in actual fact, and these fleets of ocean worth vessels are the ones allegorized as the Ark of Noah in the Bible or as the Argonavis in Greek legends.
It was thus that Mauritania was settled by the Berbers, Lebanon by the Phoenicians, Crete by the Minoans, Italy by the Etruscans, the British Islands and Brittany by the Celts and, of course, the Canaries by the Guanches. Many of these emigrants were, as is usually the case, mere passengers who never knew how to sail or, even less, how to design and build sea-worthy ships strong enough to sail the open, rough ocean, a feat very hard to accomplish in antiquity. Such huge sailships the "ships of Tarshish" of Biblical traditions are attested from remotest antiquity, for instance in the Gerzean ceramics of pre-Dynastic Egypt, which date from about 5,500 BP or so.
In this way, the Guanches were stranded on the Canaries, and the enigma which has defied solution for millennia is naturally explained. The ancient peripluses like those of Hanno and Himilco relate similar expeditions and even the establishment of such insular colonies. Such is also the meaning of myths like the one of Aeneas and his fleet fleeing from the destroyed, sunken Troy or, also, of the Biblical relate of Noah and his clan repeopling the Islands of the Nations, and founding the different nations of mankind.
More likely, the true origin of Armorica's name is from
the Dravida ar-mor-ika, meaning "remains of the land sunken under the
seas". The name of America, which the Conquistadores learnt from the
American natives, likewise seems to come from the Dravida am-mor-ika, meaning
just about the same or, more literally, "remains of the marshy land sunken
under the seas". Interestingly enough, these meanings are rather close to
that of the epeira ges (or "outlying land") of Plato and others, and
which embodies the idea of a mountainous fringe left behind when the flatter
land sunk away. This name, as applied to the Americas, was an extension of that
of Indonesia, whose actual situation indeed corresponds to actual fact.
2 The "Reds" are one of the Hindu four castes, Brahmans (or priests), Kshatryas (or warriors), Vaishyas (or bourgeois) and Sudras (or serfs). These also correspond to the four primordial races of humanity, personified in the Bible by Noah and his three sons. In modern terms, these also correspond to the real four races of humanity: whites, reds, yellows and blacks, which are precisely the heraldic colours of the four castes (varnas = "colours").
The name of the Phoenicians derives from "red" (phoinikes) in Greek. The radix cham is of obscure origin, and is said to mean "black", as usually interpreted in connection with the Egyptians, who called their country Khamis or Khemis. But this is wrong, and the true etym is "red" or, rather, "candent", as in the Latin chama ("flame"). In contrast to what many authorities affirm, the land of Egypt is whitish, rather than black, due to the sand it embodies even in the irrigated regions. The idea is that the Chams, formerly white as the Guanches, were "charred" by the volcanism that destroyed their land, and became the Ethiopians, that is "the fiery faced" (aith-opes). But, as we already said, this darkening of the originally blond Atlanteans was the result of "too much admixture with mortal blood", as Plato discloses in his Critias.
Ultimately, the radix cham or, rather, kham or khem,
derives from the Dravida, where it means "red", "fiery",
"flaming", "gold". It designated the red races which formed
the bellicose Kshatrya caste, and which was mainly composed of the Dravidian
races. The name was also applied to the wild red dog of the Indies (Cuon alpinus),
with which the Reds identified themselves. Hence, the fact that the Chamites
were often equated to "dogs". The name was applied to the Canaries
("Isles of the Dogs") because of the Chams, rather than the dogs, as
Pliny falsely alleges. Same thing with Khemis (Egypt), "the Land of the
Chams". The very name of the Guanches derives from Guan-che or, rather,
Kham-che, meaning the nation (che or ge) of the Chams". The reader
interested in more details on this should consult our article on the Dravidian
origin of the Guanche language.
3 The name of the Leucades derives from the Greek leukas, the feminine form of leukos ("white", "shiny"). Legendarily, their name is ascribed to Leukates, a boy who, desired by Apollo, threw himself from the cliff in order to escape the relentless persecution of the god. Sometimes, the cliff is directly associated with Apollo Leukadios, who had a temple at its summit. The Leucadian Rocks became famous as the place from which non-corresponded lovers or those wishing purification committed suicide, a ritual known as katapontismos. Leukates is the obvious twin of Apollo, the two being the aliases of Atlas and Hesperus, who also found a similar death.
The Leucades were also obscurely identified with the Elysian Fields, the Greek counterpart of Eden or Paradise and, more exactly, of the Islands of the Blest which are no other than Atlantis. It is interesting to note that the name relates to the radix luk- meaning "fiery","shiny","white", and which partakes of the name of Lucifer, Lug and other such luminous, fallen deities.
All such gods are invariably connected with Atlantis,
and are said to inhabit volcanic peaks, which indeed deserve the name of
"luminous". Such is the case of the Teyde volcano of Tenerife, whose
name means "The Luminous One". Coincidentally or not, the fact is that
the Teyde volcano is the legendary abode of Guayota, the luminous All-Creator of
the Guanches. Guayota is the perfect counterpart of the above mentioned
luminiferous gods, as well as of other chthonian, smithing gods such as
Hephaistos and Maya, the great architect of Lanka. Lanka was the archetype of
Atlantis, in Hindu traditions, and of all such fallen Paradises, including the